before Hegira 92 / AD 710
The palace may have been built during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I (AH 86–96 / AD 705–15), or possibly earlier.
Qasr al-Kharanah lies about 55 km east of Amman. It is a well-preserved square structure that measures 36.5 m x 35.5 m. The corners of the structure are marked by four solid three-quarter circle towers. The entry gate in the centre of the southern façade is flanked by two quarter-circle towers, and a semi-circular interval tower situated at the middle of each of the remaining facades. The palace is built of stone rubble with mortar. The structure includes two storeys of residential units arranged around a square courtyard that measures 13 m x 13 m. The upper storey is accessed by two flights of stairs directly behind the gate block. The barrel-vaults of the rooms are supported by semi-circular arches which spring from attached pilasters. One row of diagonally-placed bricks is used to decorate the upper part of the façade right above the ornamental 'arrow' slits. Another row of bricks marks the middle of all the nine towers.
In spite of its fortified appearance Qasr al-Kharanah does not seem to have served a military function since its towers and arrow slits are ornamental. The towers are solid, and the slits are too high above the floor to serve archers. Quite probably it served as a meeting place with the local tribes to elicit their political support for the Umayyad dynasty.
Both the construction techniques (the use of rubble with mortar) and the decoration (bricks and stucco) indicate Sassanid influences.
Qasr al-Kharanah lies about 55km east of Amman. It is a square structure with solid corner, interval and gate towers. The structure has two storeys of residential units arranged around a square courtyard. One row of diagonally placed bricks decorates the upper part of the façade above the ornamental ‘arrow’ slits. In spite of its fortified appearance, the qasr does not seem to have served a military function since its towers and arrow slits are ornamental. It was probably a meeting place with the local tribes to elicit their political support for the Umayyads.
A graffito was found in the building with the date of hegira 27 Muharram 92 (AD 24 November 710), which provides evidence that the construction took place no later than this date.
Creswell, K. A. C., and Allan, J. W., A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture, Cairo, 1989, pp.96–105.
Khouri, R. G., The Desert Castles, Amman, 1992, pp.18–21.
Urice, S. K., Qasr Kharana in the Transjordan, Baltimore, 2001.
Mohammad Najjar "Qasr al-Kharanah" in Discover Islamic Art, Museum With No Frontiers, 2019. 2019. http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;jo;Mon01;25;en
Prepared by: Mohammad NajjarMohammad Najjar
Mohammad Najjar is an archaeologist and has been Director of Excavations and Surveys at the Department of Antiquities of Jordan since 1988. He studied archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology in Moscow from where he holds his Ph.D. He was affiliated to the Department of Antiquities of Jordan in 1982 as Curator of Jordan Archaeological Museum. He was the Technical Director of Cultural Resources Management (sites development) at the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities between 1994 and 1997. He is the author of numerous publications on the archaeology of Jordan.
Copyedited by: Mandi Gomez
MWNF Working Number: JO 25
Islamic Dynasties / Period
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