Photograph: Carlos Santos ,  © Câmara Municipal de Oeiras Photograph: Carlos Santos ,  © Câmara Municipal de Oeiras Photograph: Carlos Santos ,  © Câmara Municipal de Oeiras Photograph: Carlos Santos ,  © Câmara Municipal de Oeiras Photograph: Carlos Santos ,  © Câmara Municipal de Oeiras


Name of Object:

Portrait of the Marquis of Pombal

Location:

Oeiras, Lisbon, Portugal

Holding Museum:

Oeiras Town Hall

Date of Object:

1766

Artist(s) / Craftsperson(s):

Louis-Michel van Loo (1707, Toulon, France–1771, Paris, France); Claude Joseph Vernet (1714–1789); António Joaquim Padrão (c.1731); João Silvério Carpinetti (1740–1800)

Museum Inventory Number:

002605

Material(s) / Technique(s):

Oil on canvas

Dimensions:

H: 290 cm; w: 354 cm

Workshop / Movement:

Portraiture European and Baroque

Provenance:

Palace of the Marquis de Pombal, Oeiras

Description:

The portrait was painted in 1776 by the French artist Louis-Michel van Loo, who was known for his portraits of Kings and noblemen. Van Loo worked from sketches outlined in Lisbon by J. A. Padrão and J. S. Carpinetti, while C. J. Vernet was in charge of the nautical-themed background. Commissioned by the English and Swiss merchants, Gerard Devisme and David Purry, the picture was devised to eulogise the persona and political achievements of the Marquis of Pombal, a central figure in the Age of Enlightenment: a merciless statesman and influential Minister of the Kingdom in the government of José I of Portugal for 27 years (1750–1777).
The Marquis of Pombal ruled with a heavy hand, suppressing the Jesuits and prevailing over the Portuguese Inquisition and the Church. In the portrait, his left hand gestures toward the River Tagus and Hieronymus Monastery, but also goes further in its propagandist call by encompassing the Kingdom's Atlantic call. Mercantilist, the marquis established the Junta do Comércio and other guilds to regulate all commercial activities, favouring trade monopolies run by the merchant bourgeoisie, and impelling the manufacturing business to greater productivity. The marquis rationalised State administration and demarcated the region for the production of Douro and Port wines, guaranteeing the wine's quality trough the Companhia das Vinhas do Alto Douro. He also launched the Aula do Comércio and the Real Colégio de Nobres; established the basis for secular public primary schools and in so doing created hundreds of new teaching posts. He reformed the academic curricula of the University of Coimbra, which at the time was inspired by Jesuit teaching.
The Pombaline reforms, including the reconstruction of Lisbon in the aftermath of the earthquake of 1755, are depicted trough the allegory of Commerce, Arts and Industry seen in the three figures surrounding the statue of King Joseph I, which appears behind the Marquis. The marquis was pragmatic and uncompromising in his efforts to coordinate the rebuilding of downtown Lisbon and the new Praça do Comércio (replacing the old Terreiro do Paço) where the statue of King Joseph I stands. Some of the plans to rebuild Lisbon rest on a table underneath his right arm, and others can be seen on a red walnut carved stool.

View Short Description

The Portrait of Marquis de Pombal was commissioned in 1776 from the French artist Louis Michel van Loo in order to eulogise the persona and political achievements of the Marquis of Pombal, Minister of the Kingdom in the government of José I of Portugal.

Original Owner:

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis de Pombal

How date and origin were established:

Original documents and stylistic analysis

How Object was obtained:

The painting was transferred from the palace of Marquis de Pombal to the Town Hall headquarters in 1939

Selected bibliography:

Marques, A. H. de O., História de Portugal, Vol. 1, Lisbon, 1974.
Monterroso Teixeira, J. de, O Triunfo do Barroco, Europália, 1991, p. 273,274.

Citation of this web page:

Cristina Correia "Portrait of the Marquis of Pombal" in Discover Islamic Art, Museum With No Frontiers, 2019. http://islamicart.museumwnf.org/database_item.php?id=object;BAR;pt;Mus11_A;13;en

Prepared by: Cristina CorreiaCristina Correia

SURNAME: Correia
NAME: Cristina

AFFILIATION: Eça de Queirós Public High School, Lisbon and MWNF

TITLE: Senior Teacher, Local Co-ordinator and Vice-President of MWNF

CV:
Cristina Correia is a History graduate and, since 1985, a Senior Teacher of History at the Eça de Queirós Public High School, Lisbon where she also lectures in Portuguese Language and Culture for non-native speakers. From 1987 to 1998 she was involved with youth affairs, primary prevention and the Camões Institute. She is Vice-President and Local Co-ordinator (Portugal) for MWNF.

Translation by: Cristina CorreiaCristina Correia

SURNAME: Correia
NAME: Cristina

AFFILIATION: Eça de Queirós Public High School, Lisbon and MWNF

TITLE: Senior Teacher, Local Co-ordinator and Vice-President of MWNF

CV:
Cristina Correia is a History graduate and, since 1985, a Senior Teacher of History at the Eça de Queirós Public High School, Lisbon where she also lectures in Portuguese Language and Culture for non-native speakers. From 1987 to 1998 she was involved with youth affairs, primary prevention and the Camões Institute. She is Vice-President and Local Co-ordinator (Portugal) for MWNF.
, Manuel Silva Pereira

MWNF Working Number: PT 16

RELATED CONTENT

 Artistic Introduction

 Timeline for this item


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