Central Asia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Anatolia [Turkey] and India
The Timurid Empire was founded by Tamerlane (Timur the Lame), the son of Turagay [Taraghay], the bey of the Barlas, a vassal tribe of the Chaghatays in Turkistan. Timur succeeded his father (d. AH 761 / AD 1360) and his uncle (d. 762 / 1361) as the leader of the Barlas. He increased his power in a short time and was proclaimed the 'amir' of the Chaghatay state. He founded the Timurid state, making Samarkand his capital.
In a short time, Tamerlane conquered a vast region encompassing Azerbaijan, Khwarazm, Khurasan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Anatolia, India and many other lands, and stretching from India to Damascus, from the Gulf of Basra to the Lake Aral and Anatolia.
Tamerlane defeated the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I ('Thunderbolt') at the Battle of Ankara in 804 / 1402 and struck a deadly blow against the Ottomans. Tamerlane died in 807 / 1405 on an expedition to China.
The contest for the throne following Tamerlane's death shook his empire greatly. Shah Rukh (r. 811–50 / 1409–47) moved his capital to Herat, leaving his son Uluğ Bey [Ulugh Beg], a renowned astronomer, in Samarkand. In this period Samarkand and Herat were furbished with magnificent monuments and became centres of arts and sciences. Uluğ Bey succeeded his father but was assassinated in 910 / 1449. This led to a great conflict, which finally ended in 854 / 1451 when Abu Sa'id ascended the throne. The Timurid Empire reached its zenith during his reign and the reign of his son Hüseyin Baykara. The Timurid Empire fell to the in 910 / 1505.
Timurids constructed many monuments in cities such as Samarkand, Herat, Bukhara, Mashhad, Tabriz, Balkh and Yazd. The complexes of Uluğ Bey in Samarkand and Bukhara, the Gök Masjid in Tabriz, the mausoleum group of Shah Zinda in Samarkand, the complex of Hodja Ahmed Yasawi in Yesi and Bibi Hatun Mosque at Samarkand are among the most noteworthy monuments of the period.