Al-Franj: the Crusaders in the Levant
Two Mamluk Sultans against the Franks
‘Sultans Baybars and Qalawun were enthusiastic patrons of luxury objects and architecture.’
Both sultans, Baybars and Qalawun, were enthusiastic patrons of both luxury objects and architecture, which they had built in Syria and in the Holy Land, and not only in the capital Cairo. For example, Baybars restored fortresses in Palestine and Syria, but his interests did not lie solely in military architecture; he also built a large Congregational Mosque in Cairo – the earliest surviving royal Mamluk mosque in the city. He died in Damascus Citadel (d. 676 / 1277) and was buried in a mausoleum (qubba) north of the Umayyad Mosque. The qubba is part of a school that was already dedicated to him, the Madrasa al-Zahiriyya.
Damascus Citadel

Hegira 599–610 / AD 1202–14
Damascus, Syria
The Mamluk Sultan Baybars died in the Damascus Citadel built by the Ayyubid king al-'Adil.