The Muslim West
Andalusian-Maghrebi Art
From Emirate to ta'ifa art: simple beginnings and elaborate heights.
The tendency in Islamic art to decorate interior spaces and building façades was complemented in the art of al-Andalus and the Maghreb by the systematic use of the arch and the capital as decorative motifs.
Although the horseshoe arch was the most typical of the available decorative devices, craftsmen created new styles of arches and combined them in different ways. The same was true of capitals, with craftsmen changing the proportions and embellishing the foliage seen on the Romano-Byzantine models to create their own style.
The starting point for this new architecture was the Great Mosque of Córdoba.
Great Mosque of Córdoba

Hegira 169–377 / AD 786–988
Umayyad of al-Andalus, Emirate and Caliphate periods
Córdoba, Spain
Pre-Islamic columns and capitals were used in the Western-emirates period along with semi-circular and horseshoe arches to give rise to a new architectural style based on dual, superimposed arcades and voussoirs of alternating colours.