While Islam was the main religion of the empire, large Catholic and Orthodox Christian communities, particularly the Coptic Church in Egypt, contributed to its spiritual and cultural fabric, as did various Jewish groups. Both religious minorities were protected by directives in the Holy Qur’an
and enjoyed a largely peaceful co-existence alongside their Muslim co-nationalists. The Egyptian Copts made some of the most significant contributions to the economic, cultural and artistic vibrancy of the Mamluk era. Their traditional expertise was concentrated in architecture and the textile, pottery and woodworking industries.