Timeline | | PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES

Date

Country | Description

527 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor, begins constructing many castles along the main caravan routes, and several churches in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gaza and Nabatian Negev.

614 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The Sassanian (Persian) army conquers Palestine during a campaign of occupation of Great Syria and Egypt. The conquest is very destructive, tens of churches are destroyed, and monasteries are sacked and burned.

628 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Heracles (r. 610–41) reconquers Palestine and the Emperor brings back the Holy Cross to Jerusalem. Restoration projects begin all over Palestine and in Jerusalem in particular.

636 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The Muslim armies expand in southern Palestine, and then begin to move towards the north. In the Battle of Yarmuk the Byzantine army is defeated and Greater Syria gradually falls under the control of the Muslim army.

637 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Jerusalem is surrendered by the Patriarch Sophronius to ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab. The Plaza of the Haram al-Sharif is cleaned and prepared for a modest wooden structure. It will take the Muslim armies another ten years to control the rest of Palestine.

639 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The plague of ‘Amwasa, a town located between Jerusalem and Jaffa, in which hundreds of soldiers and officers, including the army commander Abu ‘Ubaida ‘Amir bin al-Jarrah, lose their lives

643 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Mu’awiya Ibn Abi Sufyan, the governor of Greater Syria begins to build the seaport of ‘Akka and to establish the first Islamic shipyard, where the first Muslim fleet is built.

661 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Mu’awiya Ibn Abi Sufyan (r. 661–80) declares himself Caliph in Jerusalem, announcing the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty. The caliphs ‘Abd al-Malik, Sulayman, ‘Umar II and other Umayyad caliphs did the same.

691 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The Dome of the Rock is built as the framework of a large construction programme on the plazas of the Haram al-Sharif, including the Dome of the Chain, the gates of the Plaza and the Aqsa Mosque.

709 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The inauguration of the Aqsa Mosque by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walid Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik (r. 705–15).

712 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Sulayman Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik, the governor of Palestine, begins to build the city of Ramla as a new administrative centre.

747 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

A severe earthquake damages parts of the Aqsa Mosque and the Holy Sepulchre Church, as well as Umayyad palaces and public buildings all over Palestine.

750 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The Abbasids conquer Palestine, which loses its former centrality of rule and investment.

758 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

The Abbasid Caliph Abu Ja’far al-Mansur (r. 754–75) visits Palestine, stays in Jerusalem and orders a renovation project in the Haram al-Sharif and elsewhere, damaged as a result of the earthquake

779 A.D.

Palestinian Territories

Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi (r. 775–85) visits Palestine and Jerusalem, ordering restoration of damage caused by an earthquake in 775.
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