Turkish-Islamic Art in Pre-Ottoman Anatolia
‘Following the Battle of Manzikert, Anatolia saw a new political, religious and social formation.’
Following the Battle of Manzikert in 463 / 1071, Anatolia saw the rise of a new political, religious and social formation next to the centuries-old Byzantine Empire. This was the Turks, who had started their journey from the Steppes of Asia, founded the Great Seljuq Empire in Iran, and then settled in Anatolia.
Star tiles

During the reign of Sultan Alaaddin ('Ala al-Din) Keykubad I (r. hegira 616–35 / AD 1220–37)
Anatolian Seljuq
Karatay Madrasa Tile Museum
Konya, Turkey
The double-headed eagle bears a cartouche inscription representing Sultan Alaaddin Keykubad, symbolising his power.